English Grammar Lessons
Introduction to Sentence Structure
The two fundamental parts of every English sentence are the subject and the predicate. A simple sentence can also be described as a group of words expressing a complete thought. Subjects can be described as the component that performs the action described by the Predicate.Subject + predicate = sentence
A simple sentence or independent clause must have a verb. A verb shows action or state of being. The subject tells who or what about the verb.Subject + verb = sentence
Sentence Structure Vocabulary
The sentence format consists of a subject and a predicate.
The subject names the topic and the predicate tells about the subject.
A sentence with one subject and one predicate is called a simple sentence.
The receiver of actions is called the object.
A group of words used as a single value without subject or predicate is called a phrase.
A clause is a group of words with a subject and predicate.
Principal or independent clauses can form sentences.
A compound sentence contains two or more principal clauses.
A clause which cannot form a sentence is called a dependant clause.
A complex sentence contains a principal clause and one or more dependant or subordinate clauses.
A compound-complex sentence contains two principal clauses and one or more subordinate clauses.
Four Kinds of Sentences
Four kinds of sentences: declarative, imperative, interrogative, and exclamatory.
1. A declarative sentence makes a statement.
2. An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request.
3. An interrogative sentence asks a question.
4. An exclamatory sentence shows strong feeling.
Declarative, imperative, or interrogative sentences can be made into exclamatory sentences by punctuating them with an exclamation point.
The Six Basic Sentence Construction Patterns
1. No Verb Complement
2. Direct Object Verb Complement
3. Indirect and Direct Object Verb Complements
4. Predicate Nominative Verb Complement
5. Predicate Adjective Verb Complement
6.Direct Object and Objective Complement
Simple sentences and configurationsSimple subject and predicate
Example: Fred slept.
Understood subject (for commands, directives)
Examples: What are you throwing?
Examples: Man, that hurt!
The bear howled and scratched ferociously.
Compound subject and predicate
Fred and Mary worked hard and then rested.
John, Fred, and Cameron are working.
Ted sent the letter.
Compound direct objects
Ted sent cards and letters.
Three direct objects
Ted sent posters, cards, and letters.
Compound predicate with direct objects
Jessica cooked lunch and ate it.
Compound predicate with one direct object
Sam proofreads and edits his essays.
The teacher gave the children homework.
Compound indirect objects
The teacher gave Tess and Sam quizzes.
John is a coach.
Johnny painted his front porch white.
Harold, tell the class now.
Athletic moves excite the crowd.
The little old lady hit the tall and distinguished gentleman.
The engine was powerful.
Compound predicate adjectives
The engine was powerful but expensive.
Joe is considerably older than his brother.
Fred works quickly.
Adverbs modifying other adverbs
My dog wags its tail quite often.
The cat waited patiently and quietly at the door.
The ball was kicked.
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