English Language Grammar Lessons

Introduction to Verb Tenses, Verbals and Conditionals

Verb Tenses

Simple present

I study English everyday.

Simple past [verb + ed]

Two years ago, I studied English in Canada.

Simple future

1. [am/is/are] + [going to] + [verb]
2. [will] + [verb]
I am going to study English next year in Canada.
I will help you study English tomorrow.

Present continuous [am / is / are] + [verb + ing]

I am studying English now.

Past continuous [was /were] + [verb + ing]

I was studying English when you called this morning.

Future continuous

1. [will be] + [verb + ing]
2. [am /is /are] + [going to be] + [verb + ing]
I will be studying English when you arrive today.
We are going to be studying English next year in Canada.

Present perfect [has /have] + [past participle]

I have studied English in several Canadian cities.

Past perfect [had] + [past participle]

I had studied English before I moved to Canada.

Future perfect

1. [will have] + [past participle]
2. [am/is/are] + [going to have] + [past participle]
I will have studied all the verb tenses by the end of today.
We are going to have studied all the chapters by five o'clock.

Present perfect continuous [has/have] + [been] + [verb + ing]

I have been studying English for two years.

Past perfect continuous [had been] + [verb + ing]

I had been studying English for two years before I moved to Canada.

Future perfect continuous

1. [will have been] + [verb + ing]
2. [am/is/are] + [going to have been] + [verb + ing]
I will have been studying English for one hour by the time you arrive.
We are going to have been studying for three hours.

Verbals

Participle or verbal adjectives are words with a value of an adjective and a verb.

Gerunds or verbal nouns have the value of a noun and a verb. They usually end with the "ing" ending.

Infinitives act like gerunds . They have the value of a noun and a verb. Verb forms "to see, to study" are infinitives, can be a subject of a verb, object of a verb, or a subjective completion, take an object or have an adverbial modifier.

Modal Verbs are irregular verbs which behave very differently from normal verbs.
Here are some important differences:
1. Modal Verbs do not take "-s" in the third person.
2. You use "not" to make Modal Verbs negative, even in Simple Present and Simple Past.
3. Many Modal Verbs cannot be used in the past or future tenses.

Conditionals - Formats for Specific Purposes

A conditional format is used when the writer expresses an action or an idea that is dependent on a condition, on something that is only imagined in the present, in the past or the future.

Present Real Conditional
If I have money, I travel. (Sometimes I have money.)

Present Unreal Conditional
If I had money, I would travel. (I don't have money.)

Past Real Conditional
If I had money, I traveled. (Sometimes I had money.)

Past Unreal Conditional
If I had had money, I would have traveled . (I didn't have money.)

Future Real Conditional
If I have money, I will travel.

Future Unreal Conditional
If I have money, I am going to travel. (I don't know if I will have money or not.)
If I had money, I would travel. (I won't have money.)

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