English Vocabulary: Science & Technology
Free ESL in Canada English lessons for international students to study Science & Technology
in Canada or USA during an exchange program. Science & Technology vocabulary is necessary for exchange students
to succeed during an exchange program in the USA or Canada. Other grammar topics include vocabulary, parts of
speech, sentence structure, punctuation, tenses, verbals, conditionals and writing.
A law that states that, for a fluid that is flowing
steadily, its pressure is low when its velocity is high and its pressure is high
when its velocity is low.
The cycling of matter within the biosphere
(e.g., the water cycle).
An area with a characteristic geographic and climatic pattern
that supports characteristic animal and plant populations (e.g., boreal forest).
The portion of the planet that supports life and the
living organisms within it.
The upward force on objects submerged in fluids. For
some objects it can be sufficient to overcome completely the force of gravity
and cause the object to float.
Cam and cam follower.
A mechanism that changes rotary (circular)
motion into linear motion (motion in a straight line).
The greatest amount that a container can hold. Capacity is
usually measured in litres or millilitres.
A process in which new substances with new properties
Classification (or biological) key.
A list of alternatives (e.g.,
backbone or no backbone) used by scientists as an aid in identifying an unknown
plant or animal. (There are other kinds of classification keys but this is the
A group of all the interdependent plant and animal species
found in a habitat.
A diagram that shows various relationships among
concepts. A concept map can also contain references to events, objects, laws,
themes, classroom activities, or other items related to the concepts.
Objects and materials that can be handled.
Students make use of these in their explorations and investigations.
The ability of a substance to transmit electricity or
A substance that can transmit electricity or heat.
Conservation of energy.
The principle that energy can neither be
created nor destroyed, but can only be changed from one form into another.
A principal cloud type, exceptionally dense and vertically
developed, occurring either as isolated clouds or as a line or wall of clouds
with separated upper portions.
Facts or information.
An organized or sorted list of facts or information,
usually generated by a computer.
An organism that breaks down dead organic matter.
The mass per unit volume of a substance (density = mass ÷
The net movement of molecules from an area of higher
concentration of molecules to an area of lower concentration of molecules.
The amount of fluid displaced by an object that is put
into the fluid.
Mix a solute completely with a solvent to form a solution.
The pattern of relationships between a species and
all the living and non-living things within its habitat.
The study of all the interactions that occur within the
A group of living organisms that, along with their abiotic
environment, form a self-regulating system through which energy and materials
The comparison of the useful work or energy provided by a
machine or system with the actual work or energy supplied to the machine or
system. Efficiency is usually stated as a percentage.
The force supplied to a machine in order to produce an action.
The knowledge and skills that students are expected to
develop and to demonstrate in their class work, on tests, and in various other
activities on which their achievement is assessed. The new Ontario curriculum
for Science and Technology identifies expectations for each grade from Grade 1
to Grade 8.
Investigation carried out under strictly controlled
conditions to ensure accuracy and reliability of results. In a fair test, all
variables are controlled except the one under investigation.
A sequence of feeding relationships between organisms in
A network of feeding relationships in an ecosystem that
develops because few organisms confine themselves to a single source of food.
A fuel formed from the partially decomposed remains of plants and
animals buried in the earth over an extremely long period of time (e.g., coal,
oil, natural gas).
The number of cycles completed by a periodic quantity
(e.g., a vibrating object) in a unit of time. Frequency is usually expressed as
cycles per second.
The point of rotation of a lever. The fulcrum is also called
A rotating wheel-like object with teeth around its rim. A gear
is used to transmit force to another gear with matching teeth.
An energy source derived from the heat of the
The area in which a species lives.
Power that comes from the pressure of a liquid,
usually oil. The liquid is forced through hoses to the area where the force is
The study of pressure in liquids.
Anything that is put into a system. Sources of input include
people, materials, and energy.
Material that does not conduct heat or electricity very
Upward force on a forward-moving object that results when the
air flow around the top of the object is faster than the air flow beneath it.
A system of levers used to transmit motion.
The weight of an object that is moved by a machine, or the
resistance to movement that a machine has to overcome.
The amount of matter in an object. Mass is usually measured in
grams or kilograms.
The mass of solute dissolved in a given volume of
solution. May be expressed in grams per millilitre or grams per litre.
The ratio of the force produced by a machine or
system (sometimes called the load) to the force applied to the machine or system
(sometimes called the effort force).
made up of two or more easily identifiable parts that can be easily separated,
for example, a mixture of sand and iron filings.
Forms of communication that include written or spoken
words, sound, and/or pictures, such as brochures, posters, magazines,
newspapers, documentary films, videos, advertisements, cartoons, commercials,
news reports, nature programs, and travelogues. Audio elements include speech,
music, background sounds, sound effects, volume, silence, narration, pace, and
sequence of sounds. Compositional elements include form (structure), theme,
setting, atmosphere, and point of view. Visual elements include lighting,
colour, images, size and type of lettering, size of images, sequence of images,
symbols, graphics, camera angles, logos, speed of presentation, shape of design,
credits, details of sponsorship, animation, and live action.
A variety of different media, such as written text,
sound, graphics, and video.
Non-renewable energy sources.
Energy sources that are limited and
that cannot be replaced once they are used up (e.g., coal, oil, natural gas).
The control organelle of a living cell.
A structure within a cell that has a specific function.
Diffusion of a solvent, usually water, through a selectively
The actual result obtained from a system (e.g., the light
that comes on when the light switch on an electrical system is pressed).
Pascal's law or principle.
A law that states that pressure exerted on
a contained fluid is transmitted undiminished in all directions throughout the
fluid and perpendicular to the walls of the container.
A change of properties that does not change the type
The quality of a sound that is determined by the frequency of
the wave. The term pitch is often substituted for the term frequency of
vibration in reference to sound waves (e.g., in musical instruments).
The study of pressure in gases.
All of the members of one species found in a particular
area at a particular time.
The force acting perpendicular to a unit area (pressure =
force ÷ area).
An organism that produces its own food. In an ecosystem, a
producer is an organism that is capable of carrying out photosynthesis.
Information gathered in observations in which no measurement
A characteristic of a substance that can be
described but not measured.
Data that consist of numbers and/or units of
measurement. Quantitative data are obtained through measurement and through
A characteristic of a substance that can be
Renewable energy sources.
Natural energy sources that can be replaced.
For example, when trees are cut down for lumber, new trees can be planted in
A solution in which no more solute can be
dissolved at a particular temperature.
A graph that attempts to show a relationship between two
variables by means of points plotted on a coordinate grid. Also called scatter
The writing of a number as the product of a
number between 1 and 10 and a power of 10 (e.g., in scientific notation, 58 000
000 is written 5.8 x 107).
Two forces that act on an object in opposite directions along
the same line or plane (e.g., the movement of the two blades of a pair of
The international system of measurement units,
including such terms as centimetre and kilogram. (From the French Système
The property of being
able to dissolve. More specifically, it refers to the mass of a solute that can
dissolve in a given amount of solvent to form a saturated solution at a
The substance that dissolves in a solvent to form a solution.
The substance that dissolves a solute to form a solution.
Forces created inside a material or an object by other forces
acting on it from the outside.
A supporting framework (e.g., a bridge or building that is
built to sustain a load).
A part of a structure whose function is to resist compressive
forces. It may also be said that a strut is "under compression".
The slow, orderly, progressive replacement of one
community by another during the development of vegetation in an area.
A sampling of information, often compiled by asking people
questions or interviewing them.
Development that meets the needs of the
present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to
meet their needs.
An orderly arrangement of facts set out for easy reference
(e.g., an arrangement of numerical values in vertical or horizontal columns).
A chart that uses tally marks to count data and record
A force that stretches an object.
Pushing power that is based on the principle that for every
action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
A part of a structure that is under tension.
The product of a force and the perpendicular distance to a
A force that causes an object to twist along its axis.
A means of strengthening a structure that involves the
use of the triangle as a strong, rigid shape.
A structural element made up of a series of triangular frames.
A factor that affects the results of an investigation.
Variables are things that could change during an investigation or experiment
(e.g., the amount of sunlight received by a plant).
The amount of space occupied by an object. Volume is measured
in cubic units such as cubic centimetres.
The distance between the crests of a wave of light as it
travels through space.
The pull of gravity on an object. Unlike mass, weight changes
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