English Vocabulary Lessons
English Vocabulary for Social Studies, History & Geography
Free ESL in Canada English lessons for international students to study Social Studies,
History and Geography in Canada or USA during an exchange program. Social Studies,
History and Geography vocabulary is necessary for exchange students to succeed during an
exchange program in the USA or Canada. Other grammar topics include vocabulary,
parts of speech, sentence structure, punctuation, tenses, verbals, conditionals
The first inhabitants of Canada.
The location of a point on the earth's surface
that can be expressed by a grid reference (e.g., by latitude and longitude).
One of the early French settlers of Acadia, or a descendant
of these settlers, especially one living in the Maritime provinces or in
Brief descriptions of four different degrees of
achievement of the provincial curriculum expectations for any given grade. Level
3, which is the "provincial standard", identifies a high level of
achievement of the provincial expectations. Parents of students achieving at
level 3 in a particular grade can be confident that their children will be
prepared for work at the next grade. Level 1 identifies achievement that falls
much below the provincial standard. Level 2 identifies achievement that
approaches the standard. Level 4 identifies achievement that surpasses the
The height of something above a reference level, especially
above sea level.
An arm-like electromechanical device, designed and built in
Canada, used to retrieve and deploy objects in space.
Distinguishing characteristics of Canada and its
A plateau region of Eastern Canada extending from the
Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River to the Arctic Ocean.
Capital (as an economic resource).
One of the factors in the
production of goods and services. Capital can be goods (e.g., factories and
equipment, highways, communication systems) and/or money available to be
invested to increase production and wealth.
Capital (town or city).
The official seat of government in a political
entity, such as a province or country.
A small group, mostly anglophone and
mercantile, who occupied the chief public offices in Lower Canada during the
early nineteenth century.
The medieval values and customs of knighthood; the positive
qualities to be exemplified in the behavior of knights, such as bravery,
courtesy, honour, and gallantry towards women.
The status of a citizen, with its attendant duties,
rights, and responsibilities.
The study of the rights and duties of citizenship.
A graph that combines average monthly temperature and
precipitation data for a particular place.
Coat of arms.
An arrangement of bearings, usually depicted on a
shield, that indicates ancestry or distinction.
An economic system in which the government owns and
controls all facets of the economy.
The federal union of all of the Canadian provinces and
Compulsory enlistment of citizens for military service.
The body of voters represented by an elected official.
A chain of mountains, especially the principal mountain
system of a continent (e.g., Rocky Mountains in North America).
Laws in Great Britain that gave the colonies of British
North America preferential trade treatment.
Learned behaviour of people, which includes their belief
systems and languages, social relationships, institutions and organizations; and
their material goods (i.e., food, clothing, buildings, tools, and machines).
Dendritic drainage pattern.
Type of drainage that occurs when water
flows into a river from various tributaries, which are in turn fed by smaller
tributaries. The pattern that results resembles the shape of an apple tree.
A group of wealthy young English people in Montreal during
the early nineteenth century.
A listing and rating of the economic resources of a
Any of land, labour, capital, or entrepreneurial
ability; a factor necessary for the economic success of a region.
The system or range of economic activity in a country,
region, or community.
Qualified voters in an election.
The act of leaving one country or region to settle in
A person who organizes, operates, and assumes the risk
for a business venture.
Entrepreneurial ability (as an economic resource).
One of the factors
in the production of goods and services. An entrepreneur recognizes a business
opportunity and is able to combine land, labour, and capital to take advantage
of the opportunity and make a profit.
Latitude zero degrees; an imaginary line running east and
west around the globe and dividing it into two equal parts.
The knowledge and skills that students are expected to
develop and to demonstrate in their class work, on tests, and in various other
activities on which their achievement is assessed. The new Ontario curriculum
for social studies, history, and geography identifies expectations for each
grade from Grade 1 to Grade 8.
A small group who upheld their belief in British
institutions through control of government and the judiciary in Upper Canada
from the 1790s to the 1830s.
Irish-Americans who were part of a secret revolutionary
organization formed in 1857 and dedicated to the overthrow of British rule in
Ireland. They conducted a series of raids across the border into Canada between
1866 and 1870.
The political and economic system of Europe from the ninth
to about the fifteenth century, based on the holding of all land in fief or fee
and the resulting relation of lord to vassal, and characterized by homage, legal
and military service of tenants, and forfeiture.
Fils de la Liberté.
A group of young French Canadians in
Montreal in the 1830s who directly opposed the Doric Club. Fleur-de-lis. A
stylized three-petalled iris flower; it was used as the armorial emblem of the
kings of France and appears on the flag and coat of arms of Quebec.
A resource that is neither renewable nor non-renewable,
but must be used when and where it occurs or be lost (e.g., running water, wind,
The idea, popularized in the 1960s, that the entire
world and its inhabitants are becoming one large community with interconnected
needs and services.
A pattern of lines on a chart or map, such as those
representing latitude and longitude, which helps determine absolute location and
assists in the analysis of distribution patterns.
A mill for grinding grain.
Gross domestic product (GDP).
The total monetary value of goods and
services produced in a country.
Gross national product (GNP).
Gross domestic product adjusted to
include the value of goods and services from other countries subsequently used
in producing goods and services in the home country.
In Canada, the resident representative of the
Trade between the colonies in British North
America during the nineteenth century.
Labour (as an economic resource).
One of the factors in the production
of goods and services. Labour is the collection of people employed within a
An explanatory description or key to features on a map or
An officially elected or otherwise selected body of
people, such as the House of Commons or a provincial legislature, vested with
the responsibility and power to make laws for a political unit.
In Canada, the representative of the monarch in a
province, appointed by the federal government acting for the Crown.
Those in the American colonies who declared their loyalty
to Britain before the conclusion of the American Revolution (1776-83) and
emigrated elsewhere, the Maritimes and present-day Ontario and Quebec being
The nineteenth-century doctrine that the United
States had the right and duty to expand throughout North America.
Changing from original state by machine or by hand.
An economic system in which individual producers own
and determine the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and
Forms of communication that include written or spoken
words, sound, and/or pictures, such as brochures, posters, magazines,
newspapers, documentary films, videos, advertisements, cartoons, commercials,
news reports, nature programs, and travelogues. Audio elements include speech,
music, background sounds, sound effects, volume, silence, narration, pace, and
sequence of sounds. Compositional elements include form (structure), theme,
setting, atmosphere, and point of view. Visual elements include lighting,
colour, images, size and type of lettering, size of images, sequence of images,
symbols, graphics, camera angles, logos, speed of presentation, shape of design,
credits, details of sponsorship, animation, and live action.
Relating or belonging to the Middle Ages.
A person of mixed Aboriginal and European ancestry, especially
a person of mixed Aboriginal and French ancestry.
An economic system which uses aspects of more than one
of the three basic types of economic systems (subsistence, command, and market).
The preservation of distinct cultural identities
among varied groups within a unified society.
Something found in nature that people find useful.
Nobel Peace Prize.
One of six international prizes awarded annually by
the Nobel Foundation for outstanding achievements.
A finite resource that cannot be replaced once
it is used up (e.g., petroleum, minerals).
North American Free Trade Agreement.
A trade agreement signed by
Canada, the United States, and Mexico.
A belief or conclusion held with confidence but not
substantiated by positive knowledge or proof.
In a parliamentary government, the principal party opposed
to the party in power.
The buildings in Ottawa where the Canadian
Established political groups organized to promote
and support principles and candidates for public office.
One who loves, supports, and defends one's country.
An aspect of a place or area that derives from the
The various lands and waters surrounding the North Pole
and the South Pole.
Inability to make decisions because of the
disagreement of an equal number of voters.
The number of individuals occupying an area;
calculated by dividing the number of people by the area they occupy.
The head of the government of a province of Canada.
Primary industries (resource industries).
Industries that harvest raw
materials or natural resources (e.g., agriculture, ranching, forestry, fishing,
extraction of minerals and ores).
Artifacts, and oral, print, media, or computer
materials that are the earliest or first of a kind.
In migration theory, the social, political, economic,
and environmental attractions of new areas that draw people away from their
In migration theory, the social, political, economic,
and environmental forces that drive people from their previous locations to
search for new ones.
A mutual or cooperative interchange of favours or
privileges (e.g., the exchange of trade privileges between nations).
The location of a place or region in relation to
other places or regions (e.g., northwest or downstream).
A resource that can be regenerated if used
carefully (e.g., fish, timber).
A system of government in which the cabinet or
executive branch is responsible to the wishes of an elected legislature.
The legislative district represented by a member of Parliament
or a member of a provincial legislature.
Prerogatives and privileges of being a citizen.
An historical region of Canada consisting of all the
land in the Hudson Bay drainage system, including part of present-day Northwest
Territories, most of the present-day Prairie provinces, and present-day northern
Ontario and Quebec. The land was granted to the Hudson's Bay Company by Charles
II in 1670 and sold to Canada in 1870.
St. Lawrence lowlands.
An area along the St. Lawrence River that is
low in relation to the surrounding country. The region is often referred to as
the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence lowlands.
On maps, the relationship or ratio between a linear
measurement on a map and the corresponding distance on the earth's surface.
Secondary industries (manufacturing industries).
convert raw materials into finished industrial products (e.g., car
Oral, print, media, and computer materials that
are not primary or original.
A system in New France in which land was granted
to nobles, the Church, and military and civil officers.
A conventional, formulaic, and oversimplified conception
Helpfulness; willingness to take charge.
The two major areas of knowledge and skills into which the
curriculum for social studies for Grades 1-6 is organized. The strands are:
Heritage and Citizenship, and Canada and World Connections.
An economic system in which there is little
The right or privilege of voting; franchise.
A trade position in which a country or region exports more
than it imports.
Development that meets the needs of the
present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to
meet their needs.
The application of knowledge to meet the goals, goods,
and services desired by people.
Tertiary industries (service industries).
Industries that provide
services (e.g., banking, retailing, education).
Elements of a
culture passed down from generation to generation.
international organization formed in 1945 to promote peace and economic
A process in which there is an increase in the
percentage of people living and/or working in urban places as compared to rural
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